Genitourinary Outlines

  • Renal masses (Radiographics 2017):
    • RCC
      • Clear cell (high T2, microscopic fat, hypervascular)
      • Papillary (low T2, hypovascular)
      • Chromophobe
    • AML
      • Lipid rich (macroscopic fat)
      • Lipid poor (low T2, early enhancement)
    • Oncocytoma

  • RCC Staging
    • Stage 1 => confined to renal capsule
    • Stage 2 => within Gerota’s fascia, ipsilateral adrenal may be involved
    • Stage 3
      • Stage 3A => renal vein, IVC
      • Stage 3B => regional lymph nodes
      • Stage 3C => venous and lymph node involvement
    • Stage 4
      • Stage 4A => through Gerota’s fascia and into adjacent tissues
      • Stage 4B => distant metastases

  • Renal transplants
    • ATN
      • Related to ischemia in donor or during period from harvesting to anastomosis in recepient
    • Cyclosporine toxicity (1-3 months)
    • Rejection
      • Hyperacute
      • Accelerated acute (1st week)
      • Acute (1-4 weeks)
        • RI > 0.9
        • PI > 1.5
      • Chronic (1-3 months)
    • Thrombosis
      • Renal artery
      • Renal vein
        • Elevated RI
      • Renal artery stenosis
    • Fluid around transplant
      • Hematoma
      • Urinoma
      • Lymphocele
      • Abscess

Old GU outlines